an organisation of war and terror
Treaty Organisation (NATO) was formed 60 years ago by the Western capitalist
alliance led by the U.S.A.
as an organisation of encirclement, harassment, attack and war against the Soviet
Union and the people’s democracies of Eastern Europe.
launched a new order of war through the IMF and the World Bank in the economic
field and through regional organisations in the political sphere, as well as
strengthening its system in the military field through NATO. Contrary to the
adverse claims and assumptions, Nato was not formed in
response to the Soviet threat but rather as a threat itself six years before
the Warsaw Pact.
It had a dual
purpose: to encircle, harass and destroy by force if necessary the Soviet Union and the peoples’ democracies, and to smash
the opposition within the western capitalist countries themselves.
One of the most
concrete evidence of this is the gladio (counter guerrilla) organisations which
were overtly formed in almost every Nato country, some
of which still exist today. Under the protection of Nato and US these forces
organised provocations, sabotages, murders and coups to prevent the development
of the workers’ and popular opposition in the European countries.
formed in 1949 by 12 countries initially as a « regional defence
organisation » which then enlarged into 16 members. Following the
disintegration of the Soviet Union and the
Eastern Bloc, with further participation from these regions it has become a 26-
member strong « global » organisation.
« Strategic Concept for the 21st Century » document of the 50th
anniversary summit in 1999 states clearly that Nato is a « global military
organisation », thus revealing the fact that this organisation had a
purpose (against socialism and the USSR), that it was formed in clear violation
of the UN principles, and that it was more of an organisation for aggression
rather than regional defence.
With its 1.5
trillion euro budget, 22 thousand personnel, and 60 thousand strong military
force Nato is now a giant war machine which undertakes, since the above
mentioned change of concept, military operations and interventions outside its
territory –Afghanistan, former-Yugoslavia, Somali, and in an indirect way Iraq
and Sudan. It is the military wing of the global war waged by the capitalists.
has hundreds of nuclear, chemical, biological and conventional weapons in
dozens of military bases stationed in various countries. It aims to enlarge
continually so it can establish its order in every corner of the world by
deepening financial, economic and social crisis that engulfs the world today
leads to increasing tension and brings onto the agenda the danger of militarism
and war. The world’s total military spending reached an enormous 1.335 trillion
dollars in 2007.
It is obvious
that such large scale of weapons is not being accumulated in stock for the sake
of it. There are serious discussions going on about the idea that a war could
be an answer to this crisis. Also obvious is that at Nato’s 60th anniversary
summit the big imperialist powers will be talking about all these possibilities
as well as the issue of enlargement to the east, stationing missile shields in
Poland and the Czech Republic, and new plans to attack the workers, peoples,
the oppressed nations as well as the rivals.
We, the ICMLPO,
call the workers and labourers of all countries to take part in all anti-Nato
activities on its 60th anniversary and in the joint demonstration in Strasbourg, France,
on April 4, 2009. We demand:
to the arms race and war spending ; funds for the needs of the people and
the youth ;
lifting of all military bases; a world free from nuclear weapons ;
withdrawal of all occupying Nato forces in various countries;
dismantling of Nato, an aggressive organisation of war and terror!
Conference of Marxist Leninist Parties and Organizations
France's return to the NATO command structure:
threat to all peoples
Even before he
was elected as president, it became increasingly evident that Sarkozy wanted to
draw closer to US imperialism and the policies of Bush. That had even earned
him the nickname "Sarko the American". The election of Obama has not
tempered Sarkozy's pro-Americanism; on the contrary, he is now pretending it
will make Euro-transAtlantic dialogue easier.
election campaign, he carefully avoided announcing his plan to put an end to France's
special status within NATO's command structure. What is more, when he finally
announced it, in March 2008, he chose to do so in a speech to the British
parliament, together with a commitment to increase the French contingent taking
part, under NATO command, in the dirty war on Afghanistan. He reiterated his
decision during the April 2008 NATO summit in Bucharest,
a few months before the war in Georgia
broke out. That war, which almost set the Caucasus aflame and could have spread
to Europe, did not cool down his pro-America stance: while holding the 6-month
EU presidency, he made repeated statements about the "military
complementarity of the EU and NATO", thus taking up one of the most
contested elements of the European Constitution which, after being rejected by
the French and the Dutch, was replaced by the so-called Treaty of Lisbon.
imperialism has always been a member of NATO
And an active
member: the second largest contributor of troops and the third largest in
financial terms, the French armed forces have taken part in all of NATO's war
operations, notably in the war against Serbia,
when French planes bombed targets chosen by the US military. French
power-projection forces wear the NATO label, and the military doctrine of
French imperialism in the coming years, as set out in the 2008 "White
Paper on Defence" borrowed the main lines of US military policy: the war against
international terrorism, and securing the major powers' supply lines for raw
materials, oil, etc. We already see the evidence in the imminent opening of a large
French military base in Abu Dhabi.
This base, combining the army, air force and navy, will face the coast of Iran,
in order to control the Straits of Hormuz through which 40% of the oil passes.
This is one of the regions of the world with the highest presence of armies,
warships, and bases, most of which are American. The Arab Emirates of the Gulf,
important clients for French arms dealers, possess more Leclerc tanks than the
French army does.
decision runs into multi-faceted opposition
Some on the right
are evoking the spirit of De Gaulle, and crying treason. They blame Sarkozy for
not having gained anything in return from Washington, apart from posts for a few
French generals and 1,000 military officers.
This objection is
not shared by the French people themselves, whose chief concerns are:
- participation in the dirty war on Afghanistan, whose major
achievement has been the destruction of a country. The deaths
of French soldiers killed in combat has only strengthened this
- fear of seeing France
embroiled in an opaque system which can lead it into wars: many stress that,
had France been part of the
NATO command in 2003, it would have participated in the total destruction of Iraq.
- opposition to the EU reinforcing its military links with
- opposition to Sarkozy's overall policies, which are beholden
to the bankers, major shareholders and the employer class.
- the economic crisis, and the government and employers'
desire to make the workers and the popular masses pay for it. We reject that
our taxes are not only used to pay out billions to the banks, but are also
paying for this militarisation. Our slogan is therefore "We won't pay for
your crisis, we won't pay for your wars: No to NATO!"
One of the
unforeseen consequences of Sarkozy's decision is that the NATO issue has now
become part of the political debate: there is now public discussion about
NATO's real purpose, and the dangers it represents for the peoples of the
world, given its expansionist aims. The enlargement of NATO means the increased
danger of wars designed to protect the imperialist capitalist system now in
crisis, wars against liberation movements and against the emancipation of
peoples and the working class.
The workers' and popular
movements are increasingly calling for NATO to be dissolved.
Workers’ Communist Party of France – PCOF
Denmark: Burning flags
The Danish prime minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen is frequently mentioned
by international media as a favourite candidate as the next secretary general
of NATO. For the first time an acting prime minister might resign from his post
to become the figurehead of this imperialist grouping, originally created to
‘counter the danger from the Soviet Union’, but presently active in Central
Asia – and all over the world. The appointment of an acting head of state would
indicate the increased importance attached by US and the big EU powers to the
development of NATO as their joint military instrument.
The inveterate war criminal and neoliberal militarist Fogh is no doubt suited
for the job. He has from 2001 been the leader of the worst rightist government
in Denmark since the Nazi
occupation, and has systematically turned Denmark into a front runner of
imperialist aggression, racism and islamophobia. An echo of George W. Bush,
Fogh played a major role in the run up to the illegal war against Iraq, even surpassing his master, stating: " Iraq
possesses weapons of mass destruction. This is not something we simple
believe. We know it for a fact.”!
Defeated and under fire by the Danish anti war movement Fogh withdrew his
soldiers from Iraq in
2007-08, sharply increasing the number of Danish combat troops in Afghanistan. 22
of them have been killed until now, proportionately the greatest losses among
the NATO occupiers.
Fogh, the friend of zionist Israel,
supported the islamophobic intrigue of Jyllands
most reactionary daily, that published the Mohammed caricatures, designed as a
provocation against arabs and muslims. In the 30’s of the last century this
newspaper supported the policies of neighbouring chancellor Adolph Hitler
towards the German jews. Fogh promoted the caricatures
as ‘the Western value of freedom of expression’, while hundred of thousands muslims took to the streets, burning the Danish flag,
rightly depicting Fogh as the running dog of George Bush and U.S. imperialism.
During his time in office the Danish so-called welfare state has itself been
reduced to a caricature.
This is the kind of man, who is said to be the present favourite of the big
EU-powers France, Germany and UK as the next secretary general of
NATO. Whether Fogh will be appointed or not, the figurehead of NATO will be an
accomplish militarist and imperialist. Fogh’s candidacy has created a major
parliamentary crisis in Denmark,
and in any case his days as Danish prime minister and leader of the war party
will be numbered.
In the period of Obama, Sarkozy, Merkel and Brown NATO will not only be an
auxiliary tool of the US
wars, but the primary instrument of US and EU-imperialism for joint world
hegemony. The European Union of old colonialist powers is not a ‘progressive
counterweight to US
unilateralism’. No illusions should be nurtured. Of 27 EU member countries 21
are also NATO members. Five are members of ‘Partnership for Peace’. Only Cyprus is still not involved, and only Malta has no military force in Afghanistan.
Out of 26 NATO member states only the three Non-European states (Canada, US and Iceland)
and one European country (Norway)
are not members of the European Union.
NATO is planned to become the ‘21st century alliance for global dominance’.
Of course a majority of the Danes were and are against the imperialist wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the barbarous Israeli
subjugation of the Palestinians. Great protests in the streets and elsewhere
have been staged against Fogh and Danish participation in the criminal
aggressions. Now the anti war movement is also focusing on combating the NATO
Workers’ Communist Party of Denmark – APK
military alliance of NATO – a tool of the monopolies of the USA and the European imperialist countries –
which has this year its 60th anniversary since the day it was founded, continues the military involvement in other
countries and plans to include new members like Albania
The entry of Greece into NATO was decided in the NATO summit
held in Ottawa, Canada, at 20th of September 1951.
On February of 1952, it became a full member.
Almost a year
later, on the 12th of October 1953, the Papagos government signed a military
agreement with the US that eliminated all traces of national sovereignty and
made the country a bridgehead of the imperialists since, NATO, at any time,
could use (and it did use) highways, airports, ports without any obstacle. NATO
constructed military installations and, later, established military bases in
many places of the country.
The entry and the
participation of Greece
point of view, eliminated all traces of national sovereignty, converted the
country into a protectorate of the American-NATO imperialists, and resulted in
constant interferences in the country’s internal affairs that culminated with
the imposition of a military-fascist dictatorship on April 1967.
point of view, it has been a burden to the Greek people due to the expenditure
of great sums of money related directly with the NATO membership and, in
general, for ever increasing military armaments.
point of view, it has resulted in the full control of the country by the
American-NATO imperialists and the conversion of the Greek army into NATO
division. The Souda, and Aktio military bases were
fully utilized during the Arab-Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973 and during the
recent imperialist wars against Yugoslavia
The Greek people
have struggled for decades to achieve the removal of the military bases from
the country’s territory and the exit of Greece from the aggressive military
The Movement for
the Reorganization of KKE (1918-1955) will actively take part in the anti-NATO
demonstrations and rallies that will take place on April in various cities of Greece.
Movement for the Reorganization of KKE (1918-1955)
ITALY: A COUNTRY WITH A LIMITED SOVEREIGNTY,
OF IMPERIALIST AGGRESSIONS
On April 23, 1949
the Italian government controlled by the Christian Democrats and other anti
communist forces, signed the North Atlantic Treaty. Since then up to today, the
Italian national territory has been transformed by the USA into an “integrated
system” of more than hundred of naval air and logistic bases for land troops:
Aviano, Ghedi, Vicenza, Camp Derby, Camp Ederle, Gaeta, Brindisi, Sigonella,
Capo Teulada, etc. In some bases nuclear arms are stocked. In Naples there is the General Quarter of NATO
And so the
Italian territory has become -in the Mediterranean area- a privileged point of
departure for the USA imperialism aggressive operations, by itself or
associated with the other European imperialisms (including the Italian one),
directed against other peoples and countries, first of all the Middle East
ones. This in flagrant violation of the art. n° 11 of the Italian Constitution.
In Naples and Vicenza there is
now being planned the installation of the new Africom command for the military
control of the continent, which would make of Italy
a real outpost for new imperialist interventions and aggressions in Africa, Red
Sea and Persian Gulf.
of the Italian participation in NATO in domestic politics have been very
The presence of
CIA has always conditioned the Italian governments’ politics since the
Anglo-American troops landed in Sicily
in 1943 wioth the Mafia help. There are additional “secret protocols” of NATO
treaty, never disclosed to the Italian people; this highlights the condition of
“limited sovereignty” of our country and the heavy interference in its domestic
It is well known
the role that the USA
and NATO, with the cooperation of the Italian secret services, played in the
massacres and criminal outrages in the years of the “strategy of tension”. A
strategy directed at destabilizing the political situation, at repressing the
advance of he working class and communist movement, and at assuring the
membership to the system dominated by the USA. From the economic point of
view the political and military obligations undertaken with NATO have caused a
continuous increase of military expenditure, to the detriment of public
expenditure for education, health and other social purposes.
The opposition to
NATO has always been strong in Italy.
In the ‘50s, a lot of anti imperialist forces took part in the World Movement
of Partisans for Peace, which had as its aim the ban to atomic arms. Many were
the manifestations of struggle of pacifist and anti imperialist movements in
front of the USA and NATO
bases in Italy
since the ‘60s. Particularly important was , in the 80’, the great popular
mobilization against the installation of the USA
missiles at Comiso, in Sicily.
In the 90’
there developed the struggle against the aggression to the former Jugoslav
which started from our country, at the time governed by social democrats.
In the last
years, there has been a large mobilization of political, trade union, social
organizations, of local movements, for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq and Afghanistan. against
the enlargement of the USA
military base in Vicenza, against the expansion
of the base at Sigonella and the Mediterranean radar system at Niscemi in Sicily, against the
increase of military expenditure and the building of the “missile shield”.
Instead, Berlusconi’s reactionary government, faithful servant of the USA, wants to
support and increase all these projects.
the warmongering and imperialist alliances as NATO and UE, closing of all the
USA and NATO military bases in Italy and all over the world, drastic reduction
of military expenditure, active struggle against the war of imperialist
robbery, freedom and independence for peoples: these are the aims for which the
communists fight and, together with them, all the revolutionary and anti
is a threat to liberties and national sovereignty
years in NATO are 60 years too many
The formation of NATO
in 1949 was aimed directly at socialism, at the Soviet Union and the people's
democracies in Europe that had emerged
victorious in the aftermath of the anti-fascist WW2. It was aimed at infringing
the influence of the strengthened communist parties all over Europe, and
simultaneously subduing all the European member countries and curtailing their
sovereignty under the thumb of US
imperialism. The Marshall plan was the main
economic and financial instrument of US
imperialism to subdue the «beneficiary» countries to US tutelage. In 1955, West Germany was included in the NATO alliance,
thus breaching all agreements between the WW2 allies on never accepting the
remilitarization of Germany.
Social Democratic party (Labour Party) in 1948 played the primary role in
paving the road to Norwegian NATO membership through attacking and pursuing the
Communist party (which had won great authority throughout the war of
anti-fascist resistance and published the second largest newspaper immediately
after the war). By ways of lies, intimidation and persecution, the protests and
resistance from communists and democrats and a large section of opponents
within the Labour party itself were silenced, and the way was paved for NATO
For almost half a
has been a potential battleground and manoeuvre area for thousands of NATO
troops, and has been a hub of espionage. The North and Arctic
Sea has been NATOs playground, with Norway playing
an important role in surveillance and intelligence. Although Norway
pretended to have official «objections» to the NATO nuclear strategy,
supposedly not permitting nuclear weapons to be stationed on its territory,
this was a hoax. In the 60'ies NATO had actual plans of devastating most of Northern Norway by use of nuclear mines as a measure of
NATO is an
instrument to suppress internal unrest and opposition in any member country.
Years ago, it was revealed that NATO exercises in Norway were targeted at handling
social unrest among workers and students. Tens of thousands of progressive
citizens, including their children, have been under surveillance from the
1950'ies onwards. NATO is sure to give a helping hand to imperialist
governments fearing the increasing rage of their own workers and peoples who are
victimized by the consequences of the evolving grave economic crisis.
The «new concept»
adopted by NATO in the 90'ies has corresponded to a grave and aggressive change
in the foreign and military policy of Norway. As a small, but ambitious
imperialist country, Norway
is eager to defend its assets and investments in energy resources in the
Caucasus and the Middle East. The war on Yugoslavia in
1999 was the first time Norwegian soldiers were involved in external military
operations not sanctioned by the UN. Since 1999, Norway has been active in several
illegitimate wars. Currently some 6-700 troops are taking part in the murderous
occupation of Afghanistan.
This is occurring under a government coaliton calling itself «red and green»,
consisting of the Labour party, a rural party and the Socialist Left Party
(SV). The latter originated from and has been founded on opposition to; yes,
Nowadays there is
much talk of a closer Nordic Defence Cooperation between Sweden, Finland,
Denmark, Norway and Iceland. While the two first
countries are not members of NATO, the two latter are not members of the EU.
The main intention of this plan, presented as a positive bolstering of the
traditional Nordic cooperation, is in effect quite different. The intention is
to pave the way for Swedish and Finnish integration with the aggressive NATO
alliance on the one hand, and Norwegian and Icelandic integration with the EU
on the other. If the Danish prime minister Fogh
Rasmussen becomes new general secretary for the NATO, this plan will be
NATO and EU both
threaten the sovereignty and the freedoms of our own peoples and of other
peoples and nations worldwide. Both of them must be rejected and defeated by
the peoples and the working class.
Marxist Leninist Organisation Revolution of Norway
joined NATO in 1952 on the grounds that it would advance its joint defence skills
and would benefit from it when its territorial unity, sovereignty and security was at risk or under attack. This reasoning was in line with
the articles 3, 4 and 5 of the NATO treaty but was an insidious tactic to
deceive the masses.
The Menderes government
expressed their desire to join NATO by sending a 5000 strong troop for the
Korean War in support of the US
and South Korean forces. Turkish administration wanted to use their
“sacrifices” in Korea
as a basis for their NATO membership. They had proven their loyalty. With a
protocol agreement dated 17 October 1951 the membership of Turkey and Greece was given the green light. Turkey’s
membership became official on 18 February 1952. Seven months later (8 September
1952) an Allied Land Forces HQ (Southeast) was formed in Izmir
with a US
lieutenant general at the top. This military base was enforced further with the
participation of the French, British and Italian forces in 1954. Us military
presence in Turkey
became an acknowledged fact with the signing of the “Treaty on the Status of
the NATO Forces” on 10 March 1954. The number of NATO “facilities” (bases) in Turkey reached 112 in 1966 and kept
increasing in time. Turkish administrators were not allowed in these bases
without permission from NATO and US commandments.
The “Turkey-US Defence and Co-operation Agreement” of
1976 guaranteed the right for the US to use some bases such as
Incirlik and Kargaburun on NATO’s behalf. Another “Cooperation Agreement”
signed by the military coup government in 1980 agreed the use of 12 military
bases by US on behalf of NATO for five years. Despite the fact that teh
agreement is expired it is still in effect because of US demand.
The number of
NATO and US bases in Turkey
has increased in time and technically become more sophisticated. The Incirlik
air base in Adana
is the most important one and being used as the 39th main jet base of the US
Air Force. It is
being used as the head quarter for the occupation of Iraq
and the attacks on the regional countries. The NATO Air Base in Cigli, Izmir, is the oldest base in Turkey. It is administered by US
Air Force (USAFE) and contains I-HAWK and Roland rocket systems as well as 42
fighter bombers and military personnel. NATO’s LANDSOUTHEAST HQ was moved from Naples to Izmir on 11
August 2004, followed by the stationing of the US
16th Air Fleet from Ramstein, Germany, to Izmir on 1 January 2006.
Among other main
military bases in Turkey are Sile for the Stinger rockets; 3rd Jet Base
Commandment in Konya for AWACS; 9th Jet Air Base in Balikesir for the “vault”
rocket launching pad (6 in
total); as well as Mugla Aksaz naval base, Ankara-Ahlatlibel, Amasya-Merzifon,
Bartin, Chanakkale, Diyarbakir-Pirinclik, Eskishehir, İzmir-Bornova, İzmit, Kutahya, Luleburgaz, Sivas-Sarkısla,
Iskenderun, Ordu-Persembe, Rize-Pazar, Erzurum, and Mardin containing “CAOC6”,
NATO's joint air operation centres.
the conditions and the framework of Turkey’s
membership to NATO was the fact that it was a product of the military policies
of the big western powers led by the US as well as resulting from the
Second World War and the post war conditions. This membership brought further
dependence to Turkey and enlarged NATO’s sphere of influence and military
activity as far as the Soviet Union, while resulting in the neighbouring
countries to see Turkey as an outpost of the US and NATO and giving way to
tension in regional relations.
At a time when
NATO considered the USSR and the peoples’ democracies in Eastern Europe as a
military target Turkey became one of the two main forces, the second being the
Shah’s Iran, of NATO’s capitalist encirclement of the USSR. The fact that
NATO’s LANDSOUTHEAST HQ was stationed in Izmir
was a clear sign of the role given to Turkey.
Through NATO the US guaranteed its conventional and nuclear
military presence in Turkey,
just like in Europe. NATO membership meant
being a subcontractor of the policies of western big powers led by the US. It became
public that during the 1960-61 “missile crisis” between the US and the USSR,
the US atom missiles were
stationed in the Incirlik base in Adana.
In the name of “requirements of being a NATO member” Turkey presented its
“cultural and historical relations” in the Balkans, the Middle East and the
Caucasus into the service of the American strategy: it strived for the
governance by the collaborating forces in these regions; manipulated Islam and
the “Turkic culture” to this end; organised overt/covert lobbying activities in
Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece and Albania; played a part in the
disintegration of Yugoslavia and the seizure of power by pro-American forces in
the Balkans and the Eastern Europe; attempted to take part in the organisation
of a coup in Azerbaijan and other countries; sent military troops to
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosova and Somalia. As a NATO member Turkey now has
military presence in 23 countries. Because of this membership Turkey was used as a base for the occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan
by the US
and British military. The government reasoned the deployment of troops to Afghanistan
with the requirements of this membership.
NATO presence in Turkey and Turkey’s membership to NATO has led
to the strengthening of the reactionary forces, military coups and increased
tension and conflicts in the country and the whole region. It was under the
auspices of NATO and US that those dark forces organised their sabotages,
murders and coups in order to suppress popular opposition and maintain the rule
of collaborating forces. Turkish counter guerrilla forces as a state
organisation and as a variant of Gladios organised by the US-British secret
services as part of NATO activities have been active for nearly 60 years.
One of the main
obstacles before Turkey
becoming an independent and democratic country is NATO and the continuation of
Turkish membership to this military offensive organisation. Turkey is chained with its NATO membership as
well as the military cooperation agreements with the US. In order for Turkey to break this chain it has to get out of
NATO, cancel all bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements with the US and other
imperialists as well as the military bases, and destroy all American
nuclear-biological weapons and ammunition in its territory. Turkish, Kurdish or
from any other nationalities, all progressive workers and labourers in Turkey and
their revolutionary party, and progressive intellectuals are fighting for this
end. This is a fight which has been going on since the 1960s. The 2004 NATO Summit
in Istanbul was
Putting an end to
Turkey’s NATO membership and the policies designed by the military agreements
with the US would strike a blow to American imperialist strategy in a wide
region, from the Balkans to the middle East and the Caucasus; it would also
lift an obstacle to the advancement of friendly relations among the regional
countries and strengthen the peoples’ struggles for independence and democracy.
It is for this reason that this year, which marks the 60th anniversary of NATO
and the 57th of Turkey’s
membership, is set out to be the year of fight against and break away from
NATO. We will see strong protests, numerous panels and meetings to educate the
masses, and struggles for the closure of NATO and US military bases.
Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey - TDKP